ASSEMBLY MANUAL
BAUPANEL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM

The BAUPANEL construction system allows very high execution speed. The performance of labour can be estimated in the order of 3.00 man hours per m2 of construction element.

Basically it has two stages: a) mounting panels and b) concreting, which distribute the yields quoted at 0.50 and 2.50 man hours per m2 respectively. That is why it is necessary to have  all the items listed below on site, in order to achieve a process of continuous work.

Equipment Schedule
Drill
Corrugated Steel Bars (6 mm)
Cement Separators
Rulers
Spraying Machine
Brackets and Attachment
Trowels, Plastering Trowels and Rulers
Door and window sub frames
Plumb Line
Strips
Stapler
Girders and Struts
Tweezers
Tweezers
Polyurethane Foam
Radial Cutter
Drawing Pen
Drawing Pen
Bolt Cutter
LAYOUT AND INSTALLATION OF ASSEMBLY BARS
PANEL INSTALLATION

Two rows of corrugated bars, maximum 6 mm in diameter and 40 cm long (b) will be used. They will be staggered with a longitudinal separation of 37.5 cm (1/3 of the width of the panel). The spacing between the rows must always be equal to the nominal thickness of the panel + 17 mm (a).

The boreholes will be made in the foundation with a 6 mm drill bit to a depth of at least 50 mm so that the bars can be nailed afterwards, using a mallet. Chemical anchoring is not required because the joint is to single shear (b).

It is advisable to stake the lines first, so that they coincide with the position of the mounting bar lines, and that the bars are nailed in a line. Next, put the panel in position, and tie those bars with steel mesh. Finally, the bars belonging to the second row on the opposite side of the panel (a)  are nailed.

Assembly should always begin in one corner of the structure, so that the two panels placed in the bracket support each other (c). This corner joint is attached with angular reinforcement meshes standing floor to ceiling continuously, without overlaps. The panels are tied to previously-positioned mounting bars.

The panels are attached to each other with staples every 40-50 cm (d). In general, only the openings belonging to the doors will match up, while the windows are subsequently cut in the position required by the project.

ALIGNMENT
PLUMBING AND INSTALLATION OF ANGULAR MESH

Horizontal beams are placed above the lines of window and door lintels to ensure alignment to the walls. You may use square steel tubes or straight wooden struts, which will be attached from the opposite face of the panel (e).

To fasten these rulers, inclined struts or articulated brackets will be used, which will be fixed to the floor. These brackets provide the perfect alignment. Separation between brackets: every 2 to 3 panels. The rulers should be attached from the opposite side of the panel (f).

Both struts and the brackets must be fixed to the floor perfectly to temporarily resist wind forces.

All elements of alignment, plumb and fastening should be on one side of the panel, leaving the opposite side completely clear, so that subsequently the spraying of micro concrete can begin.

The angular meshes are tied to only one of the two available panels, to allow their movement and the correct plumbing, with a maximum tolerance of 8 mm (g).

The panels can be mounted on the floor in groups of 3, 4 or 5 units, so that they can later be lifted as a set and assembled in place. (h).

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OPENINGS CUT AND INSTALLATION OF FLAT MESH
PRE FRAMES AND E&P INSTALLATION

Placement of the panels of all the partitions designated in the project will continue, respecting the position of the openings for the doors. It is advisable to have all door and window sub-frames ready before starting to assemble the panels.

Cutting the panels to make window openings can be done with a radial or sabre saw cutter. In the corners of the openings, steel mesh bands will be placed, arranged at 45 ° from 29 cm length (1/4 of flat mesh MP) (i).

It is recommended that sub-frames have a depth equal to the wall once it has been concreted (eps +70 mm), so that its edges can be used to screed the final layer of micro-concrete (j).

Once all doors and windows are in position, proceed to the placement of the angular meshes, on which the horizontal support panels will be placed. These meshes are cut off in the vertical edges to avoid overlapping of the layers of scaffolding.

The window openings have a maximum clearance of 2 cm, and the sub-frames will be removed after the concreting of walls (i).

Also at this stage, the stair ramps attached to walls and footholds must be laid out, for the purposes of leaving the angular meshes in place, to be fastened later.

The door openings will have wooden sub-frames whose claws will remain fixed to the panel and later be concreted.

The pre-installation of electricity lines and plumbing pipes is performed using a hot air gun to make the grooves, depressing the polystyrene in the path of each line. The flexible pipe will pass behind the steel mesh panels. Rigid pipes, such as distribution boxes and mechanisms, are placed cutting the steel mesh; after placement, the scaffolding will be recovered with flat steel mesh bands (k).

FIRST LAYER OF MICROCONCRETE APPLICATION IN ONE SIDE
SECOND LAYER OF MICROCONCRETE APPLICATION IN ONE SIDE

Concreting the walls will start on the opposite side to where the alignment and plumb line elements are located.

To check the resistance of the micro concrete, prismatic specimens of 40 x 40 x 160 mm will be taken according to UNE EN 1015-11 (Testing Method for Mortars). These specimens will be subjected to flexion and compression, according to the monitoring plan that has been prepared.

When industrial dry mortars are used, it will be essential to check that the reading of the flow meter is sufficient for the percentage of mixing water indicated by the manufacturer. To do this, we will proceed with the calibration of the spraying machine, prior to its operation. During this time, the equivalent water flow of the weight percentage value is calculated, indicated by the manufacturer of industrial micro concrete, expressed in litres/hour, as usually measured by the graduated tubes of spraying machines (l).

The thickness of concrete will normally be 30 mm, measured on the outside of expanded polystyrene wave. Considering the depth of the said wave (12 mm), the resulting average thickness of the micro-concrete layer is 36 mm for each side panel (ll).

Concreting may be conducted by pneumatic spraying, or even by pouring, in the latter case using a formwork system.

The pneumatic spraying will always be done in two layers totalling 30 mm; the first will have an average thickness of 20 mm (minimum), practically covering the entire steel mesh panel; then the second remaining layer will be applied (m); it is advisable to reinforce this layer with fibre mesh alkali-resistant glass (Mallatex or similar). It may also be reinforced with a lightweight triple torsion mesh. It will be obligatory to use this secondary reinforcement if the project requires use of a layer of micro concrete thicker than 30 mm.

The first layer will be applied in the form of successive horizontal strips from bottom to top starting from the bottom of the wall. In this way, the strips are arranged one on top of another, avoiding the occurrence of sags. The maximum recommended height for the first projected layer is 5.00 m. With the material still soft, it is recommended to use a toothed trowel to lightly ‘iron’ the layer, leaving it rough but with a uniform thickness. You should not be able to see the steel mesh panel if the first layer has been applied correctly.

OPPOSITE SIDE CONCRETING

It is of prime importance that the first layer is thick in order to reduce exposure of the surface by having a uniform volume of concrete mass. This ensures better control against contraction due to shrinkage. The second layer, typically 10 mm thick, will be applied from the top down. If the construction has more than one floor, the second layer of the front may be left until the end. It can be applied once all other panel installation work has been completed (n).

The time interval between the first and the second layer should be minimised; preferably the same day or the next day. If this is not possible you must use a bonding agent based on an acrylic resin in a watery dispersion before applying the second coat.

The thickness of the concrete layer can be determined with wooden, PVC or metal strips, which may be attached from the crossbars of the steel meshes of the panels. It is essential that these strips can be removed at the same time as the second layer is applied, so that the hole that left can be filled in them be filled in one operation. If you choose to place the strips with the same material that is sprayed, it is recommended that they are installed after the first layer (o). It is important to use a bonding agent between the strip of material and the layer that is to be applied in order to avoid cracks.

You may also chose to place removable 25 mm strips fastened to mesh panel to apply the first thick layer, and then apply the finishing layer, with the reinforced mesh, with a thickness of 5 mm.

Upon completion of the concreting of one side, the alignment and plumbing elements can be removed and placed on the opposite side. The sequence of concreting the opposite side can begin. The deadline to remove the rulers and brackets depends on the temperature of the environment, but as a general rule within 24 to 48 hours should be sufficient.

STRINGER AND FORMWORK ASSEMBLY
PREPARATION OF SLAB PANEL INSTALLATION

The framework panels will be prepared by placing scaffolding spacers of 30 mm height in each one, at a ratio of 3 to 4 per m2 on one single side, and at the ends where the overlapping of the meshes does not protrude. Flat mesh bands will be fastened to them to create continuity between the plates (p). Assembly of the package of support girders, girders, and struts is carried out, whether by a traditional method, or pre-assembled with any type Mecanoflex or similar system. The formwork is then placed with shuttering boards or phenolic boards, as required. This will be followed by cleaning and application of a release agent.

It is very important to remember that if the building has more than one height, a space of at least 60 mm should be left between the panels of the framework and the wall, for the purpose of keeping the micro concrete surface continuous from floor to floor (q). This should not be done on the top floor to avoid the thermal bridge, but where there are butt joints between the walls and frameworks (r).

CASTING INFERIOR MICROCONCRETE LAYER AND SLAB PANEL INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION OF FLAT MESH, ANGULAR MESH, REINFORCEMENTS

Next, a thick layer of micro concrete, 30 to 40 mm in thickness, will be poured on the formwork. At the same time the panels, previously prepared, and meshes with separators, will be laid. The panels must be immersed in the fresh mixture until they are supported in their separators (s). In the case that a false ceiling is not planned, the mechanism boxes (with lid) are put in position at this stage, the round type for plasterboard, at all points where a light is needed (t).

Important note: Before pouring the compression layer, it must be verified that none of the walls of the next floor act as girders from which the framework being assembled is hanging. In this case, prior to pouring, the corresponding reinforcements to the construction detail of the joint between these elements must be done, according to the requirements of each project (u).

Once this has all been verified, we will proceed to pour the compression layer with a thickness of 50 mm onto the top mesh of panel. This may be done with the same micro concrete used in the walls, or the concrete from the centre can even be used. It is recommended that the maximum amount of aggregate does not exceed 10 mm (u).

CONCRETE CASTING COMPRESSION LAYER
NEXT FLOOR PANEL INSTALLATION

If there are sloping floors and stairs, the panels will be prepared the same way as for horizontal slabs as for the sloping formwork, according to the project, with their corresponding inclined girders and struts.

Assembly begins from the lowest point, by placing the first row of panels supported directly on the formwork on top of their separators. Next, the gap underneath will be filled, also placing a light load on the upper surface to provide stability and prevent the panels from being lifted. We will continue with the next ascending row with the same procedure, until the sloping floor is completed. Only the thickness of the compression layer remains to be completed. (w, x).

In general, the stripping down may be done 2 weeks after the concreting, leaving some of the struts with a gap of no more than 2 m until 3 weeks has passed. At this stage all of the propping may be removed, except anything that is specifically needed for the particular project.

Important note: When a framework is suspended from a wall of the top floor, you must keep the propping until you have completed those upper walls and they are at the age that they can receive loads.